Exodus 11:1-13:16 March 21 2010
A secret revelation was made to Moses while in the presence of Pharaoh, that he might give warning of the last dreadful judgment, before he went out. This was the last day of the servitude of Israel; they were about to go away. Their masters, who had abused them in their work, would have sent them away empty; but God provided that the labourers should not lose their hire, and ordered them to demand it now, at their departure, and it was given to them. God will right the injured, who in humble silence commit their cause to him; and none are losers at last by patient suffering. The Lord gave them favour in the sight of the Egyptians, by making it appear how much he favoured them. He also changed the spirit of the Egyptians toward them, and made them to be pitied of their oppressors. Those that honour God, he will honour.
1. (Exodus 12 : 1-10) The Beginning Of The Year Changed ,Pharaohâ€™s firstborn
Exod. 12:1 The LORD said to Moses and Aaron in Egypt, 12:2 â€œThis month is to be for you the first month, the first month of your year. 12:3Tell the whole community of Israel that on the tenth day of this month each man is to take a lamb for his family, one for each household. 12:4 If any household is too small for a whole lamb, they must share one with their nearest neighbor, having taken into account the number of people there are. You are to determine the amount of lamb needed in accordance with what each person will eat.12:5 The animals you choose must be year-old males without defect, and you may take them from the sheep or the goats. 12:6 Take care of them until the fourteenth day of the month, when all the people of the community of Israel must slaughter them at twilight. 12:7 Then they are to take some of the blood and put it on the sides and tops of the doorframes of the houses where they eat the lambs. 12:8 That same night they are to eat the meat roasted over the fire, along with bitter herbs, and bread made without yeast. 12:9 Do not eat the meat raw or cooked in water, but roast it over the fire â€”head, legs and inner parts. 12:10 Do not leave any of it till morning; if some is left till morning, you must burn it.
God appointed that on the night wherein they were to go out of Egypt they should, in each of their families, kill a lamb, or that two or three families, if they were small, should join for a lamb. The lamb was to be got ready four days before and that afternoon they were to kill it as a sacrifice; not strictly, for it was not offered upon the altar, but as a religious ceremony, acknowledging Godâ€™s goodness to them, not only in preserving them from, but in delivering them by, the plagues inflicted on the Egyptians. See the antiquity of family-religion; and see the convenience of the joining of small families together for religious worship, that it may be made the more solemn.
2. (Exodus 12: 11-14) The Passover Instituted. Passover.
Exod. 12:11 This is how you are to eat it: with your cloak tucked into your belt, your sandals on your feet and your staff in your hand. Eat it in haste; it is the LORDâ€™s Passover. 12:12 â€œOn that same night I will pass through Egypt and strike down every firstborn â€”both men and animals â€”and I will bring judgment on all the gods of Egypt. I am the LORD. 12:13 The blood will be a sign for you on the houses where you are; and when I see the blood, I will pass over you. No destructive plague will touch you when I strike Egypt. 12:14 â€œThis is a day you are to commemorate; for the generations to come you shall celebrate it as a festival to the LORD â€”a lasting ordinance.
The passover was to be kept every year, both as a remembrance of Israelâ€™s preservation and deliverance out of Egypt, and as a remarkable type of Christ. Their safety and deliverance were not a reward of their own righteousness, but the gift of mercy. Of this they were reminded, and by this ordinance they were taught, that all blessings came to them through the shedding and sprinkling of blood. Observe, 1. The paschal lamb was typical. Christ is our passover, 1Cor . 5:7 . Christ is the Lamb of God, John 1:29 ; often in the Revelation he is called the Lamb. It was to be in its prime; Christ offered up himself in the midst of his days, not when a babe at Bethlehem. It was to be without blemish; the Lord Jesus was a Lamb without spot: the judge who condemned Christ declared him innocent. It was to be set apart four days before, denoting the marking out of the Lord Jesus to be a Saviour, both in the purpose and in the promise. It was to be slain, and roasted with fire, denoting the painful sufferings of the Lord Jesus, even unto death, the death of the cross. The wrath of God is as fire, and Christ was made a curse for us. Not a bone of it must be broken, which was fulfilled in Christ, John 19:33 , denoting the unbroken strength of the Lord Jesus. 2. The sprinkling of the blood was typical. The blood of the lamb must be sprinkled, denoting the applying of the merits of Christâ€™s death to our souls; we must receive the atonement, Romans 5:11 . Faith is the bunch of hyssop, by which we apply the promises, and the benefits of the blood of Christ laid up in them, to ourselves. It was to be sprinkled on the door-posts, denoting the open profession we are to make of faith in Christ. It was not to be sprinkled upon the threshold; which cautions us to take heed of trampling under foot the blood of the covenant. It is precious blood, and must be precious to us. The blood, thus sprinkled, was a means of preserving the Israelites from the destroying angel, who had nothing to do where the blood was. The blood of Christ is the believerâ€™s protection from the wrath of God, the curse of the law, and the damnation of hell, Romans 8:1 . 3. The solemn eating of the lamb was typical of our gospel duty to Christ. The paschal lamb was not to be looked upon only, but to be fed upon. So we must by faith make Christ our own; and we must receive spiritual strength and nourishment from him, as from our food, see John 6:53,55 . It was all to be eaten; those who by faith feed upon Christ, must feed upon a whole Christ; they must take Christ and his yoke, Christ and his cross, as well as Christ and his crown. It was to be eaten at once, not put by till morning. To-day Christ is offered, and is to be accepted while it is called to-day, before we sleep the sleep of death. It was to be eaten with bitter herbs, in remembrance of the bitterness of their bondage in Egypt; we must feed upon Christ with sorrow and brokenness of heart, in remembrance of sin. Christ will be sweet to us, if sin be bitter. It was to be eaten standing, with their staves in their hands, as being ready to depart. When we feed upon Christ by faith, we must forsake the rule and the dominion of sin; sit loose to the world, and every thing in it; forsake all for Christ, and reckon it no bad bargain, Heb . 13:13 , 14 . 4. The feast of unleavened bread was typical of the Christian life, 1 Cor. 5:7,8 . Having received Christ Jesus the Lord, we must continually delight ourselves in Christ Jesus. No manner of work must be done, that is, no care admitted and indulged, which does not agree with, or would lessen this holy joy. The Jews were very strict as to the passover, so that no leaven should be found in their houses. It must be a feast kept in charity, without the leaven of malice; and in sincerity, without the leaven of hypocrisy. It was by an ordinance for ever; so long as we live we must continue feeding upon Christ, rejoicing in him always, with thankful mention of the great things he has done for us.
In remembrance of the destruction of the first-born of Egypt, both of man and of beast, and the deliverance of the Israelites out of bondage, the first-born males of the Israelites were set apart to the Lord. By this was set before them, that their lives were preserved through the ransom of the atonement, which in due time was to be made for sin. They were also to consider their lives, thus ransomed from death, as now to be consecrated to the service of God. The parents were not to look upon themselves as having any right in their first-born, till they solemnly presented them to God, and allowed his title to them. That which is, by special mercy, spared to us, should be applied to Godâ€™s honour; at least, some grateful acknowledgment, in works of piety and charity, should be made. The remembrance of their coming out of Egypt must be kept up every year. The day of Christâ€™s resurrection is to be remembered, for in it we were raised up with Christ out of deathâ€™s house of bondage. The Scripture tells us not expressly what day of the year Christ rose, but it states particularly what day of the week it was; as the more valuable deliverance, it should be remembered weekly. The Israelites must keep the feast of unleavened bread. Under the gospel, we must not only remember Christ, but observe his holy supper. Do this in remembrance of him. Also care must be taken to teach children the knowledge of God. Here is an old law for catechising. It is of great use to acquaint children betimes with the histories of the Bible. And those who have Godâ€™s law in their heart should have it in their mouth, and often speak of it, to affect themselves, and to teach others.
Exod. 12:2 THIS MONTH IS. . . THE FIRST MONTH. The inauguration of the religious calendar in Israel. In the ancient Near East, new year festivals normally coincided with the new season of life in nature. The designation of this month as Israelâ€™s religious New Year reminded Israel that her life as the people of God was grounded in Godâ€™s redemptive act in the exodus. The Canaanite name for this month was Abib (see 13:4; 23:15; 34:18; Dt 16:1), which means â€œyoung head of grain.â€ Later the Babylonian name Nisan was used (see Ne 2:1; Est 3:7). Israelâ€™s agricultural calendar began in the fall (see note on 23:16), and during the monarchy it dominated the nationâ€™s civil calendar. Both calendars (civil and religious) existed side by side until after the exile. Judaism today uses only the calendar that begins in the fall.
Exod. 12:3 COMMUNITY OF ISRAEL. The Israelites gathered in assembly.
Exod. 12:5 ANIMALS. . . WITHOUT DEFECT. See Lev 22:18-25. Similarly, Jesus was like â€œa lamb without blemish or defectâ€ (1Pe 1:19).
Exod. 12:6 AT TWILIGHT. Lit. â€œbetween the two evenings,â€ an idiom meaning either (1) between the decline of the sun and sunset, or (2) between sunset and nightfall â€”which has given rise to disputes about when the Sabbath and other holy days begin.
Exod. 12:7 BLOOD. Symbolizes a sacrifice offered as a substitute, one life laid down for another (see Lev 17:11). Thus Israel escapes the judgment about to fall on Egypt only through the mediation of a sacrifice (see Heb 9:22; 1Jn 1:7).
Exod. 12:8 BITTER HERBS. Endive, chicory and other bitter-tasting plants are indigenous to Egypt. Eating them would recall the bitter years of servitude there (see 1:14). BREAD MADE WITHOUT YEAST. Reflecting the haste with which the people left Egypt (see vv. 11,39; Dt 16:3).
Exod. 12:9 ROAST IT. . . HEAD, LEGS AND INNER PARTS. The method wandering shepherds used to cook meat.
Exod. 12:11 PASSOVER. Explained in vv. 13,23,27 to mean that the Lord would â€œpass overâ€ and not destroy the occupants of houses that were under the sign of the blood.
Exod. 12:12 JUDGMENT ON ALL THE GODS OF EGYPT. Some had already been judged (see notes on 7:19; 8:2; 9:3; 10:21), and now all would be: (1) They would be shown to be powerless to deliver from the impending slaughter, and (2) many animals sacred to the gods would be killed.
Exod. 12:13 SIGN. Just as the plagues were miraculous signs of judgment on Pharaoh and his people (see 8:23), so the Lordâ€™s â€œpassing overâ€ the Israelites who placed themselves under the sign of blood was a pledge of Godâ€™s mercy.
Exod. 12:14 CELEBRATE IT AS. . . A LASTING ORDINANCE. Frequent references to Passover observance occur in the rest of Scripture (see Nu 9:1-5; Jos 5:10; 2Ki 23:21-23; 2Ch 30:1-27; 35:1-19; Ezr 6:19-22; Lk 2:41-43; Jn 2:13,23; 6:4; 11:55-12:1). The ordinance is still kept by orthodox Jews today.